THE HINDU. SYSTEM

SELF-CULTURE

PATANJALA YOGA SHASTRA.

KISHORI LAL SARKAR, M.A. B.L.

(Author of. the Hindu System of Moral Science and of the Hindu System of Religious Scisnce and Art.)

PUBLISHED BY SARASI LAL SARKAR, m.a. Assistant Surgeon, Chemical Department, Medical Colleges.

jax CORNWALLIS STREET.

12902.

CALCUTTA: Puintry sy H.C, Das, Evysrom Pexss,” ao, Noyen Chand Dutt's Street.

PREFACE,

The principles of yoga apply alike to the highest spheres of contemplative and reli- gious life and to the humblest objects of worldly pursuit. It is like the fundamental processes of algebra which enter into the solu- tion of the highest problems of Differential Calculus no less than into the solution of ordinary questions of calculation, The com- mentators of the Yoga Shastra however view it only in connection with the bigh meta- physical and spiritual questions relating to humanity. This is no wonder, as the yoga Shastra itself deals with too many questions of this class. But the need of the modern day is to know the Yoga Shastra as a general and abstract system, irrespective of the objects to which it may"be applied. In the following pages I have tried to present it in this shape. The appendix is’ intended by the publisher to explain how far the discoveries and the researches of modern Europe comport with the facts and theories of Yoga Shastra.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER L-

Tae ouritxg or THE SuRJECT.

Supzecr. Page. Section 1.—Introduction on oo «(ot Section 2.—The process of Nirodha ... ow 5 Section 3.—~The Samddhi process which comes after Nirodha os 10 Section 4.--The peaceful harmonious state alter Samédhi on oe WS Section §.~The three states considered tegether 2. CHAPTER II. FURTHER EXPOSITION ON THE LINES INDICATED, Section 1<—The meatal functions on which Nirodha bears 28 Section 2.—The steps leading to Samadhi 4 or Ekdrthaia we Hw Section 3--The state of Ekdgraté or success alter Samadhi - 38 Scctiow 4,—The three stages of Yora i in n relation to the Sankhya Philosophy at Section §.—What to be shunned and what to be gained by Yoga 46

Seetiva 6.—The same subject continued

CHAPTER IIl. ‘Tur ticat racrors or YocA.

Section t.—General enumeration of the factors 53 Section 2.—The first Yoginga—Yam: 58 Section 3.—The Second Yoginga—Niyama .., 6 Section 4.—The third Yogdnga—Asana (Posture) 65 Section 5,—The fourth Yogdénga—Pranayama ... 67 Section 6.—The filth Yogdnga—Pratyahdra (Res+ traint) aie we 71 Section 7.—The sixth Yogdnga—Dhieand we 93 Section 8.—The seventh yoginga—Dhyina .. 75 Section 9.—The eighth Yoganga—(Samidhi) ... 79

CHAPTER Iv. Tas Divisions snp vxcRrezs or Yoca, Section 1.—The four-fold mn by Bhdgabat Geeta BZ Section 2.—The great division into the Sabeez (with Seed) and the Nirbeez (without seed) ws 87 Section 3.—The great division into the Sabeez and Nirbeez (continued) os 92

[ ii J

CHAPTER V. Yoga IN RELATION TO VARIOUS CONCERNS

or Lire, Section 1.—How Yoga influences religion, and vice versa we . o 98 Section 2.—Voga as it concerns morality rae 103 Section 3.—Yoga as it concerns intellect oe TEE —:— APPENDIX. Yooa axp Mxsarenism, (Written By the Publisher). Section 3,—What is mesmerism, and how it is induced? oe WL Section 2.—The physiological explanation of Mesmerism .., one ae 125

Sa.tion 3.~Mesmerism is something more than @ mere physiological Oral

menon os we ae 130 Section 4—The spiritual explanation of mes- merism o on 134

Section 5.—The phenomena of clairvoyance ... 138 Section 7.—Clairvoyance regarding space as dealt with by Patanjala 1 wo 145 Seetion 8.—Spiriwalism and Yoga ae 9 Section 9,—Yoga and Mysticism ow ae ESS

CHAPTER 1.

THE OUTLINE OF THE SUBJECT.

SECTION 1.—THE INTRODUCTION

“Yoca is the nirodha of the mental opera- tions.” 1—1.*

Now the first question is what is niredha? Tt will be observed that it does not mean absolute obstruction of mental opera- tions, for then the word would have been waary (abarodha). Neither does it mean absolute opposition, for then the word would have been faite (biredha). Nirodha in th wide sense in which it is used here, in tact, means, confinement leading to concentra- tiua, and the: to adjustment. Hence it involves three ideas more or less. Stoppage.

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concentration and harmonization, in other words, “yoga includes (1) nirodha with that limited meaning given to it in the definition of nirodha parinima, (2) samadhi with that limited meaning similarly given to it, in the definition of samadhi parindma and (3) ekagrata as indicated by the definition of ekagratf parindma. 3

Culture of soil involves three things (1)

preparing the yround ; ‘2) growing the plant

(3) reaping the fruits. The yoga system of

the culture of mind similarly lays down three fundamental processes.

(1) The process of nirodha (stoppage) or the process of nivritti.

» (4) The process of samadhi (conventra- tion) or the process of purilied pravritti.

(3) The process of ek8grata siddhi (suc- cess as to singleness of purpos} or the process of harmonizing pravritti with nis ritti,

The frst process secures swarupata or the

state of being self-vollected and tranquil.

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‘The secend secures ekarthat4 or identifi- vation with one thing, so as to exclude all other things, in other words, concentration with more or less tension.

The third secures what is called ekagrat or harmonization unto one thing, free of all tension.

The difference between ekarthati and wkAgratd, is this :-—

In ekarthat4 there is a total exclusion of all things other than one and in ck&grata@ there is no such exclusion, but harmonization— the one thing being at the top (TW).

in short, nirodha, samadhi and siddhi are, as if, they were—the preparation, the ine ation and the fruition of the object.

It will be secn hereafter, that attention, application, and concentration correspond te dharan3, dhyana and samadhi. Thus they are included in the second process, r/z., that of samadhi mentioned above. European writers on self-culture principally give stress to attention, application and concentration. But these may either be of the pure stuif, of

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duty, and righteousness, or they may be rank passion and infatuation. Devotion may be angelic or perverse. Therefore it is not enough to teach devotion to one's object of pursuit, but first of all to see that the right thing is selected and the right course followed. Hence the Hindu yoga shastra enjoins is preliminary purifying condition, nirodha (or stoppage of excitement, passion and im- pulse). Thus nirodha must precede dhyana and samadhi (application and concentration) Concentration being preceded by absolute equanimity, the result is an harmonious state uf peaceful action and a state of harmony between the object and its surroundings. These three steps are thus desvribed by PRtanjala onder the names (1) nirodhi inima, (2) samadhi parinAma, and (3)

Agrata parinama.* "The impression of excitement and the

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{spontaneous} counter-impression to stop it, the one falling and the other rising—if the mind sides with the stopping tendency,—this is tendency to stoppage (or nirodha pari- nama)” g—Ill.

“When of auultifariousness and singlen: »5 of purpose, the one abates and the other grows, that is the tendency to concentration (or sam&dhi parindma,)” 11—II.*

When tranquility and activity are re: ciled to each other,(that is, when ats active and activity is tranquil, under the influ- ence of a single purpose, that is the tendency to harmonize unto one thing (or ekagrata parinima,) 12—IL-t

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SECTION 2.—THE PROCESS oF NiropHa.

It is to be observed that it is yoga which developes the spiritual sphere of man. Yoga also expands the worldly business capacities of man. In the former sphere it is gnana yoga or buddhi yoga or raja yoga or bhakti yoga. In the Jatter sphere it is mano yoga. But in both the principle is the same. It is the _ principle of application and concentration, But as already said, concentration upon a particular thing may be in the shape of an infatuation. and this is the case when the mind pursues an object under excitement and passion. ‘Therefore the mind should be cleared off all excitement before it moves. In fact, to cause the mind to be practically vacant, is the best preparation for receiving a thing in its true light. Hence the yoga shistra attaches a primary importance to the process of vacating or tranquilizing the mind. It is the initial process which by clearing the ground, enables the mind, easily to soar high and to alight upon any of the highest peaks of

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spiritual, scientific or other researches. Hence the yoga shastra, though it begins with the definition of yoga

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using the word nirodha in a wide sense, limits and points the sense of the term nirodha in the following sutra.*

. “In two conflicting impulses, one tending to excite and the other to stop excitement, when the former is subdued, and the latter prevails, and the mind falls in with the latter, that is a state called the state of tendency to nirodha (stoppage). 3—III.

External objects constantly impress themselves upon the mind and tend to excite it in one way or other, at the same time, there arises a counter tendency not to yield to the excitement. The former tendency ix culed dyuthdn and the latter mirodha. A man is incessantly subject to such a conflict.

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A’ tempting dish of food tends to excite the desirc to cat, while considerations of health come in to suggest not to eat. A charming object tends you to run towards it, while prudential thoughts occur to make you not so to run. Some words or acts on the part of a man tend to excite anger in you while you feel the desirability of not being angry. In short, to do or not to do, to feel or not to feel, to think or not to think, is the constant alruggle to which man is subject. The yoga system says that the first thing to go right, is to pause by stopping the excitement, and to make yourself calm by becoming absolutely indifferent to all impulses.

The homely adage, “look before you leap,” imay well be referred to, to explain the first step of the lofty structure built in the shape uf yoga philosophy or the Hindu system of self-culture. But the yoga shastra does not inculcate everlasting stoppage of feeling and thought. It teaches only to stop them till you can fully become master of your position, and till you can take a calm and dispassionate view of the whole thing.

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“Then the superintending will is in its true position”, 3—I.*

When nirodha parinima ¢. e. the state of tendency to stoppage, takes place as defined in sutra g of book IIY quoted above, and when the superintending will power is in its true position, what follows? 10—III-t

“Then the mind takes a calm and quiet course from the impressions.”

Thus yoga is not for securing an everlast- ing cessation of activity. It only chastens the mind and frees it from impurity. It prevents distraction and guards agdinst falling into the pitfals of wrong and error. It puts the will- power in its proper condition of guidance and superintendence, a condition which ix not secured, when it yields to excitement» and distractions. For when it so yields itself, it becomes identified with the impulses for the time being.t

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“The man becomes identified with im- pulses under other circumstances (than those of nirodha.)’ 4—1.

When English writers inculcate the neces. sity of getting tid of prejudice and passion, they, in effect, inculvate to a certain degree, the principle of nirodha. As regards the high problems of man's destiny and existence, the necessity of nirodha, in order to ap- proach them, is no less insisted on by western writers than by the Hindus. Says the Eng- Kish philosophical poet -—

“Retire, the world shut out,

Then in the dead of night

In the depth of heart thus inquire, *What am I and whence &c.'"

SECTION 3.—THE SAMADHI PROCESS WHICH COMES AFTER NiropHa,

Ir has been seen that the object of nirodha (stoppage) is to vacate the mind of its exist- ing prejudices and passions, and thus prepare it for the influx of pure truths and healthy

Com)

sentiments. In fact, junction and disjunc- lion—yoga and biyoga—go together. The positive and the negative are counterparts of each other. In yoga shastra the negative phase is called ‘nirodha'—the positive phase is called ‘samadhi.’

Nirodha parinama hax been explained by sutra g of book Hl. It is the state in which, between the tendency to get excited and that to get quicted, the latter prevails. ‘This has been dealt with in the preceding section. It has also been shown in that secs tion that the mind in that state takes a calm and quiet course from the impressions pro- duced as stated in sutra to of the same book, Samadhi parinama is defined in sutra 11 as follows :—*

“Between the tendency to be distracted by a multitude of objects and that to single out one,—when the former tendency disap- pears and the latter prevails in the mind—

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{ 12 }

that state is called samdhi parinama or the state tending to samadhi.”

The process is this, When by nirodha or stoppage of excitement you rise over all pre-existing impressions,—that is, over all prejudices, a calm and easy flow of ideas takes place. Then you are enabled to take a position which is dispassionate, open, and free. Thus of all things, the fittest or the worthiest naturally becomes the most promi- nent and spontancously engages your atten- tion, throwing the crowd of other objects in the back ground. Thus ckarthata or single. mindedness begins to assert itself tending to absorb the mind in it. This is samfdhi parinama.

Alter that, when the mind awakens from samadhi, it finds itself in complete posxses- sion of its object and equally earnest and tranquil—that is the state called ckagrata parinima. It comes after samadhi parinima But of this state in the next section.

The state after nirodha is the samadhi parinama state. The cultivation of this state

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mvans the cultivation of singlencss of purpose or singleness of object.

To cullivate devotion to one thing ata lime, is the means of preventing distractions.*

“For the prevention thercof (i. ¢., of dis- tractions) let one truth be dwelt upon.” 32—I.

The first step towards it is “the cultivation

of moral virtues such as benevolence, tender sympathy, complacency, and rising superior to pleasure and pain, and to merit and demerit. whereby the minJ acquires healthy ease.’ Sve sutra 33—L.+

The second step is the regulation of the breath. Sve sutra 34—L.}

“The mind may also be fixed even by de- volion to worldly objects.” See sutra 35—1.$

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“Or the fixation may arise from illumina- tion devoid of anxiety.” (36—1).*

“Or it may arise from a state of dis- passionateness. 38—I.+

“Or it may arise frem pondering on an object of one’s own liking.” (39—I).t

These are some of the ways in which one may begin the cultivation of the habit of Single minded devotion. The acquisition of such a habit is the means of removing obstacles to progress and improvement. These obstacles are enumerated in sutra 30 of Book I, as follows :-—§

“Sickness, Ianguer, doubt, carelessness, laziness, passionate attachment, wrong per-

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ception, purposeless occupation, instability of purpose”. 30——I.

‘These stand in the way of realizing the direct presence of the Supreme Intelligence which however is realized by means of incessantly meditating on that Supreme One, a process before which all obstacles vanish. Sutras 28 and 29—{.*

‘Thus incessant remembrance of the name of the Deily, with intent meditation of its meaning, is the paramount cultivation ot singlemindedness.

Wt will be clear now that although the first step of yoga is nirodha or the tranqui- lization of the mind—the next step is samidhi or the identification with one object. This step begins with a tension. But greater the identification, the less the tension, till one is reduced to a state of inaction in the completion of samadhi or to a state of absorption. But inaction can not be

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lasting. The yogi can not be satisfied with it. Hence the next state called that of ekigraté parinima is one of harmony bet- ween inaction and action, between blankness and excitement. In short, it is a state of peaceful activity in connection with the object which engrossed it in samadhi.

SECTION 4.—THE PEACEFUL HARMONIOUS STATE AFTER SAMADHL.

There is ckarthatha before samadhi as indicated by sutra 11, book HI. But ekar- thath is not the same as the ckigrata which comes alter samadhi. This is shown by sutra 12. This is the last phase of yoga. In samadhi the will power is engrossed in its object, it is as if it were lost in it. But alter samadhi, it is in possession of its object with equanimity between the opposing tendencies to blankness and to excitement, and between unity and multiplicity.*

“* arerifedl qemenht fraleawar fee 1 2 all

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“When peacefulness and activity are re- conciled to cach other (with regard to the object of application which stands at the top of all others), that is the state tending to ekagrat4 (harmonization unto one).” 12—HI.

This sutra describes a very important state of the mind, a state which is often lost sight of. It is by missing this state that people say that the yoga shastra is nihilistic. and that the Hindu system of culture leads to nirvan, ‘The ckagrat& parinama as defined above is the state of peacefulness free from apathy, and of earnestness free from excite- ment, In nirodha parinama the mind is tranquilised, but in its tranquility a variety of ideas calmly flows in (sutra 10, book HI). In samadhi parinama this variety of ideas or purposes gathers to a head, and the mind becomes engrossed in a single object, in which it tends to be fost. Both these states arr defective. In the first there is negative tran- quility, but no positive object. In the second there is a positive object, but in this stage, first there is great tension, and then a state of relaxation or inaction. This inaction of

2

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samadhi, in fact, is the necessary result of that absolute isolation of the object from all its surroundings, which is a condition of the state of samadhi. But in the ek&grata pari- nama state, the will power is self-possessed and not lost. The object appears with its surroundings, and these surroundings are vlothed with a harmonious relation with the object, which prevents excitement and blank- ness, but which brings about earnestness and peacefulness. With all great men, scientists, artists or prophets, there must be the state of incubation, éc., the state of meditation and absorption. ‘This ix nirodha and samadhi pari- mima. Then comes the state of action, /e., the state of peaceful and masterly realization, This last state ix ckayrata parinama, in fact, the state towards siddhi (success). Sir Isaac Newton, before he enunciated the great truths which revolutionized the mathematical knowledge of the world, used to remain for hours and days absorbed in contemplation, ‘That was the state of sam&dhi parinama. And then after that he made his own, what had been pressing upon his mind and was

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able quietly to deliver to the world the funda. mental propositions of higher mathematics. This was the state of ekagrati parindma as defined above. The great prophets of religion exhibited similar respective states of absorp- tion and of masterly action.

“The three states of santa (tranquility) udita (excitement) and abyapadesha (the in- expressible harmonization of the two) are things the presence of which is to be found in every dharmi.” See sutra 14—L11*

“A dharmi is he who follows the qualitirs ot tranquility, excitement and the inexpressible harmonization of tranquility and excitedness."

‘The abyapadesha condition, which charav- terises true ekgrata is realized in one who chastises without anger, who eats without sl who, in fact, cam even fight as Arjuna was directed to fight by the Lord without any per- sonal feclings of amhition or vanity. This is the state of pure dutifulness—the state of want

iness, who earns money without avarice,

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of selfish attachment. It can only be consum- niated by complete faith and reliance on the Loving God. Such faith and reliance is the perfect and transcendental ek&grata in which the ‘one aim’ is not any limited object—but faithfulness to the Supreme Will. When the ‘one aim’ is limited to any particular object, say lo a scientific or any other worldly object, the ekfgraté is inferior aod partial. But when the ‘one aim’ is to conform to the moral and spiritual order of the universe—that is to the Supreme Will governing it—the ekigrati is the highest and perfect. When this aim is vstablished, all minor aims come in as acces- sorics or as things subservient.

SECTION 5.—THE THREE STATES CONSIDERED TOGETHER.

“THE tranquilizing, the concentrating, and the harmonizing are the short names by which the ihree parinimas, nirodha parindma, samadhi parinaina and ekagrat4 parinadma may be called. Now it will be seen that they successively lead

(ar)

to each other and that there is 2 common cle- ment pervading them all, viz., an element of antagonism to distraction and passion. There- fore the three are called different phases of the same thing. The tranquilizing tendency is called the property (dharma). The con- centrating tendency is called the function (lakshmana) and the harmonizing is called the condition ({avasth3). That is they are res- pectively, the essential property, the denoting function and the resulting state of the subject as regards the object. This is clear from the following sutra :—*

“By explaining the three parinimas the exsential property, the denoting function and the final condition as regards the senses and the objects of the senses are explained.” 13—Ill.

It means that onc finds in the senses and the objects of the senses, changes which cor- respond to the tranquilizing, the concentrat- ing and the harmonizing conditions.

* uta qafeay wirewerret UFC ATRTAT: te RBH

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The tranquilizing tendency is the charac- terstic condition called santa (peaceful), the concentrating tendency is the symplomatic condition called udita (stimulated) and the harmonizing tendency is the final condition called—abySpadesha (inexpressible). Accord- ingly these three states are said to be found in every dharmi or phenomenal being or thing in sutra 14 book IH, which has already been quoted.

What differentiates the parindmas is the order of succession {krama).

Difference in the order is the occasion of the diflerence of parin3mas.”"* —15—III.

Now what is krama (order) ? It is detined as follows :—t

“Order of succession is the relation of moments cognised in the last modification."

It is conceivable that ekagrath may come first, instead of coming last, or the samadhi

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( 23°)

may come first instcad of coming in the second place, in some exceptional cases. This may be owing to the direction that the consciousness of onc moment may take with reference to that of the next. But this discussion as introduced by the sutras above quoted is metaphysical and may well be kept apart. The practical importance of combin- ing together the three parindovas is shown by more than one sutra.*

“By practising samyama (defined practising together dharana, dhyan and samadhi) with reference to vach of the three parinimas one gets a knowledge of the past and the future." 16—II1.

By ptactising samyama with regard to nirodha parinama, one becomes immoveable by external influences. He is not driven to do what he ought not to du and becomes xwastha or truly posted.

By practising sanyama with reference to samadhi parin’ma, one is freed from the distractions of his own consciousness. He

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{ 24 )}

is put upon the way of concentration and becomes identified with one object. By practising sanyama with regard to ekigrat’ parindma, one rises over all struggle and with the singleness of purpose acquired by sam&dhi he realizes his object in all its shapes and form and to its very essence easily and spon- taneously.

Such a three fotd discipline must vastly widen the field of one's mind and must immensely deepen one's grasping power. So with such power and insight one may well pry into the future and get a retrospect of the past—to both of which the present is always a key.

The power of one, who has qualified himself as above extends to the minutest and 1o the most extensive. His vision is both microscopic as well as macroscopic. He is at home in dealing with the particular as well as the general. So we have sutra 40 book I.*

His mastery extends to the most minute and to the most extensive”.

* TOTRAT TT THTSTT. wei

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Again in sutra 41 book 1.*

The mind in which transformations have lost ground becomes unto the perceiver, the perception and the perceivable as a trans- parent crystal on which they are reflected as one and the same with it.”

This means that one, who has mastered external influences and has become self. collected, has no burden to bear either in tegard ta his own act or with regard to the objects before him. The external influences and impressions set tightly on him like a reflected light and he is free to attain to the highest position, pressed upon by nothing in this world.

Such is the state of consummation of yoga. Yoga thus comprehends the three changes of tranquilization, concentration and harmoniza- tion. The word yoga is sometimes used as limited to nirodha and sometimes as limited to samadhi. But its meaning is not com.

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pleted without ckAgrat4 either in its highest state as implying approach to the Supreme One or as implying only a harmonious Tealization of any limited pure object of pursuit.

The means, by which nirodha, samadhi and ckagrat are secured, are treated in detail under the head of yoga-angas or the practical limbs of yoga. ‘They are however genera- lized under the two heads of abhyas and bairagya, the physico-psychic discipline and the ethico-spiritual disciptine.*

“The brittis are stopped by abhyas {physical and psychic exercises) and by pairlgya (freeing oneself from attachments by moral and religious exercises). 12—I.

What is abhyas? “It is the effort to re- main in the state of nirodha.” Sutra 13—1.+

it will be seen hereafter that this effort consists of regulation of posture, and of breath, of withdrawing the senses from thvic

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(27)

objects and gathering them to a point, and fixation of attention &c. Then “this effort in order to be well grounded must be observed for a long time uninterruptedly and with devotion.” Sutra 14—-1.*

In the next place, bairdgya is defined as follows :-—t

“It is the mastery of him who has risen above and become indifferent to the (attrac- tions of) objects seen and heard.” Such mastery requires yama (control of desires.) niyama (regulation of them) and samyama (three-fold practice) &e.

“When bairigya is carried to perfection the real purusha—the soul, is known and an indifference to phenomenal changes arises” Sutra 16—I.f

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CHAPTER 11.

FURTHER EXPOSITION ON THE LINES INDICATED.

SeEcTION ].—THE MENTAL FUNCTIONS ON WHICH NIRODHA BEARS.

The functions of the mind are either sound or morbid accordingly as they are aktishta or klishta. If one learns to check them, he can employ them discriminately. But if he be unable to check them he is often a prey to them in evil directions. Hence the necessity of acquiring the power to stop them. Accordingly the author enumerates them at the outsct.*

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( 29)

“Brittis (functions) are of five classes whether healthy or morbid {i.¢. whether affected or unaffected by klesha).” 5—I!.

“Klesh consists of ignorance, egotism, attachment, hatred, and tenacity to worldly life."* 6—IL

The five classes of mental functions have been said to be (klishta and aklishta) morbid and healthy.t

Evidencing, misevidencing, idealizing nidra (vacating) and remembering are the five functions."6—I.

Manifestly, misapprehension or miseviden- cing is of an unhealthy class. Apprehension ar evidencing is of a healthy class and the others apparently may be either healthy or unhealthy according to circumstances. And even apprehension may be forbidden by the requirements of the situation, and may be regarded as unhealthy.

Pramina or evidencing is of three kinds

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( 30 )

«~direct perception, inference and inspira- tion.”* i

Thus by pram4na is meant the work of the perceptive faculty, of the reasoning faculty and of the ‘spiritual faculty—called inspiration, by the higher influences operating in higher minds.

Misevidencing means false apprehen- sion such as does not conform to that (real object)."t 4—I.

To recognize mistaking as a function ix peculiar to the Hindu system. That man mistakes, is a fact. It is better for many purposes to recognize this fact than not. It is an incident of the chaotic tendency which is admitted to exist in nature. Its use is to emphasize and call into play the evidencing faculty which without this opposite could not appear io relief. In short, to err being human—erring should have a place in considering the operations of the mind.

* WareTqareritea Rarerit beige

+ facade fererrerrerrganfaey icier

{ 31 )

“Vikalpa or the idealizing consists in following the sense conveyed by words in the absence of the thing.’* g—I.

Broadly speaking, this is imagination.

“Nidré or the vacating is the function resting upon consciousness of blankness.”>

In the Hindu system, securing the state of blankness is a thing of great importance. It is the means of securing fulness of healthy activity. It is an act conducive to nirodha or tranquilization.

Smriti or remembering is not the tetting xo of that of which one has become aware."

To sum up the brittis, a thing is evidenced hy the senses or the senses conjointly with reasoning. ‘This is pramana. Then it is

possible that owing to the wrong action of the senses, the evidence ix false. This is biparyaya or mistake. But leaving aside this possibility and taking the evidence to

* sqegarargarelt sequal frarer: eign + warrant Ufetfirer tole

t wepgefrrareenatie aftr ie te

( 32)

be correct when the thing evidenced is removed, a substitute of it in the shape of a word with a representing sense remains. This is bikalpa (imagination). But when the mind is driven to get rid of this substituted representation and feels consciousness of blankness, this is nidré (or vacation). But if instead of getting rid of the representa- tion which one was aware of, does not let it go, this is smriti (memory). These are the five classes of brittis or functions. But the force of the word britti is a little more than mere functions. It is derived from the root bri (@) meaning to fall upon. The term britti conveys the idea of agitation and excitement.

It is therefore that the brittis are to be stopped in order to enable the will power to act freely and properly. This stoppage or nirodha is for securing tranquilization. It is not for stopping action. In fact for the matter of action it is not stopped by nirodha. A gentle action within, ever remains even after stopping the excitement of the function men- tioned above. Sutra 10 book iii expressly Bays SO.

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Each of the hrittis might, in fact, press upon the mind in relation to more than one objret atatime. This would be confounding. Then several britlis might tend to work at the same time. This also would be confounding. In fact the brittis tend to lead the mind each in its own way. But the mind should be able to dismiss or entertain them. Says an english essayist. Dost thou xo young know when to xpeak and when to hold thy tongue." Similar- ly it may be said Dost thou so young know when to remember and when to forget" and soon, But onc, in order to know when to do a thing or not to do it—must first of all know to be calin and self-collected by shutting out the invasions of all aggressive influences. This shutting out is niredha. This state of nirodha is thus described by Bhagabat Geeta*

“As a lamp sheltered from” the wind flickereth not, such is the traditional simili

* ae Sat fare ee Taar |ar: | aifien aaferea geet aaa: veil 3

( 34)

of the yogi of subdued thought, absorbed in the yoga of the self.”

SEction 2-—TIE STEPS LEADING fU SAMAvHt OR EKARTHATA.

It has been already seen that samadhi

parinima is the state in which the tendency tu

multifariousness yields to the tendency (oat

single purpose: (sutra 2 book IE.) Samfdhi

itself is defined as fotlows :—*

“When that (contemplation) is (so in tensilicd) to lose, as if it were, conscious- self in tne consciousness af the object that is samadhi." 3—I1L.

T definition and the defmitions of dbarand and dhyana will he

Hens of one’

after in full. Burt it is neee

Ty te toucl them here.+

> izartarefratay eeapafas garhae' ay + Sqergirae areca gigi

{ 35 )

“To fix the mind on a limited space (object) is dharana." 1—III.

“There to concentrate attention i. dhySna”"* 2—II1.

So samadhi is the highest degree of concentrating altention when it rea point at which the idea of the obje and the man lo:

even consciousness This is the highest ckarthata (singleness of purpose),

How is this to be practised? It can be practixed in two ways—in a theoreti studently way -or in a practical way, course of the aflairs of active life. The first method is practised in groves and caves under the instructions of qualified gurus, the second method, in striving after suce

ins honest avocations of life and above all in performing religious devotion.

When the object of the sadhan (effort) is limited, dharana and dhyana may not ev- tend to samadhi, In such cases, even if they extend to samadhi, that samadhiis not nirbevz

* A HERAT WTAE R18

( 36 )

(thorough) samadhi but only sampragnata (partial) as it will be explained hereafter.

But where the object of sidhan is the Divine Being and when it is properly conducted with that end, getting all obstacles removed, the man falls into nirbecz samadhi, or consum- mate self-obliviousness and such samfdhi is followed by realizing divine life. This subject will he fully treated later on. Ordinarily the yoga shstra speaks of removal of pain as the object of yoxa. But what is meant by this pain? Jt means living the low life, of one who cannot realize the moral and spiritual order of the universe. In short, it is that which accompanies ignorance, in the sense of incapacity to realize all that is high and noble. But the effect of the highest samadhi is what the Bhagabat Geeta deseribes as the states of sthifapragaa (fixed in wisdom) and of sthitadhi (fixed in-contemplation).*

* acerfet wer arena aml oe eT | WareaTAAT Qe: feaaMesyas cyl

(37)

“When a man abandoncth, © Partha! all the desires of the heart, and is satisfied in the self by the sell, then is he called stable in mind (55).

He whose manas is free from anxiety amid pains, indifferent amid pleasures, loosed from passion, fear and anger, he is called a muni of stable mind. (56).

He who on every side is without attach- iments, whatever hap of fair and foul, who neither likes nor dislikes, of such a one the understanding is wellepoised. (57).

When, again, as a tortoise draws in on all sides its limbs, he withdraws hi» senses from the objects of sense thea is his under- standing well-poixed. (58).

Benger: gay fare: |

Dacmraihs; ferrite free’ wigs

a adarafire Seay MT MITTAL |

anfierefa 4 tf ae osm ufafea: mel

aar dwet aad Qaioerats aa |

sfraralfntererer rer neff: acu aarngdtar t 30

( 3% )

SECTION 3.—THE STATE OF EKAGRATA OR SUCCESS AFTER SAMADHI.

Tt hax been explained that while samadhi is the state of incubation, the state of ekAgratA is the state of fruition. low it has heen defined by Patanjala has been shown before. It ix the condition of subjective and objective harmony as has been already explained. It includes subjective harmony, as by definition it includes a reconcilement of tranquility with carnestness. It ha» objective harmony because the definition implies that one thing is to be the lading thing of all others.

As in the case of samadhi, so in the case of ckagraté, the consummation is only realized when the object is the Divine Being. In all other cases the object consists of something connected with some duty, limited by time and space. The ekagrata arising in relation to such objects is a harmonious peaceful ex- perience limited by time and space.

But when the object is the All Goad Divine Being the ckagrata is unrestricted.

(39 )

Then again in the case of samadhi—when the object is more or less of a negative charac- ter, some sort of samadhi may be attained, In the case of ekagrata however when the object is of a negative character—the condi- tion of true ekagrat& is not at all attainable.

‘The author speaks of two sorts of samadhi as follows :—* 5

(“The samadhi) of those who seek to be merged in the bodiless or in nature, is of a worldly purpose.” —1g—I.

The author means that such sam&dhi has no higher fruition in their case, they being subject to the laws of this phenomenal world as for example birth and rebirth.

But he says that :—t

“That of others is preceded by, reverence, vigor memory, samAdhi proper (in the sense of ekfrthata) and supersensuous perception.” 20—I.

Reading this sutra with sutra 12 of book iii

* qacaral fatenafeeaen! pee! aruratdcarfraarferengaan sartera 1°10

( 40)

defining ckAgrat® parindma it is evident, that it is the samadhi of those who have faith and hope that terminates in the harmonizing con- dition of unrestricted ekigrata parinaima, but not of those who want to be merged in nature. Sri Bhagavat Geeta calls it bhakti yoga.

In fact ckAgrata, in the sense of religious devotion, isha less the end than the beginning

of yoga. practical yoga as the preliminary preparation for the regular course of yoga cultivation. And this practical yoga consists among other things, of resignation to God.*

The highest ckigrata is described by Bha- gabat Geeta by the following among other sutrast

* aa: enaratacnfearnia fanaa: 1218 + sfacarfa ware fer wefeer cent art: