Copyright, 1897, by the AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND BUILDING NEWS Company, Boston, Mass.

No. 1114.

Entered at the Post-Office at Boston as second-class matter.

MAY 1, 1897.


The Present Low Cost of Building Operations. —The Over- growth of Office-buildings in New York. The Government Report on Tests of Metals and Building Materials.— Scheme to create a German Olympia.— Analyses of the Strata of

Upper Air.— New York Labor Troubles. . . . ... . 3 TurEE MEDITERRANEAN GARDENS.—II.—AmaLFI ... . . 365 An Owner Loses nis Suits ror DamaGes. . ....... 87 ESN re ce ee ae > ae ee ee ee ne eee ILLUSTRATIONS :

Entrance Gateway: Phelps Hall, New Haven, Conn. West- ern Pennsylvania Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa. Renaissance Domes, No. 5: Church of the Madonna della Steccata, Parma, Italy.— Renaissance Domes, No. 6: Plans and Sec- tion of the Same.— Entrance Gate and Gate Lodge for Woodlawn Cemetery, Everett, Mass. Views from and towards the Grand Hotel dei Capuccini, Amalfi, Sicily.

Accessories of Landscape Architecture, No. LV: View in the Garden of the Academy of France at Rome, Italy.— Ac- cessories of Landscape Architecture, No. LVI: Avenue de Beaumont in the Park at Compitgne, France.— Places of Pilgrimage.— A Group of Mantels.

Additional: The New Academy of Fine Arts, Dresden, Ger.— Grand Staircase: Stafford House, St. James’s, London, Eng. —Choir and Nave, looking East: Salisbury Cathedral, Eng. Semi-detached Houses, Sneyd Park, Bristol, Eng. . 38

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HE non-professional public hardly realizes how cheap building is now, compared with its cost fifteen or twenty years ago. Although wages are about the same, or, consid-

ering the length of the working day, are rather higher now than then, materials, especially where machinery is concerned in making them, are far lower. ‘To say nothing of structural iron, which has fallen in price to little more than one-fifth of its cost in the early seventies, lumber, bricks, cement and other materials are cheaper now, perhaps, than they have ever been. After the great fire of 1872, the cost of bricks, laid in the wall, was ordinarily reckoned in Boston at thirty-six dollars a thou- sand. Now, better bricks, quite as well laid, with better lime and cement, cost there, in the wall, fifteen dollars a thousand. Moreover, fireproofing processes have been of late greatly im- proved and cheapened, so that an ordinary mercantile building can be erected, with floors, roof and partitions all of iron and concrete, or terra-cotta, for ten to fifteen per cent more than it would cost with the cheapest wooden floors, roof and partitions that the law will permit. Considering the immense superior- ity in durability, in freedom from shrinkage and rot, in exemp- tion from the constant repairs made necessary by such shrink- age and rot, and in saving in insurance rates, of the fireproof structure, it is surprising that any other sort should, at present prices, be built for mercantile purposes. It is hardly possible that prices can go lower. * Even now, American structural steel is sold in Germany and Belgium, handicapped by the cost of four or five thousand miles of transportation, in direct competition with the local material, made by workmen whose wages aver- age thirty or forty cents a day, so that any further fall is prac- tically out of the question, and it appears to be certain, from the reports of contracts in the foreign professional papers, that an ordinary house can be built more cheaply here, notwith- standing the higher wages paid by our contractors, than it can be, using the same materials, in England, while our workman-. ship is, as a rule, far superior to that of foreign mechanics. Although it is possible that such a state of affairs may last for some time longer, it is very unlikely that contractors and ma- terial men will make any further sacrifices, and a return to a normal scale of prices, which should be, for this country, a lit- tle higher than those which prevail abroad, is certain to occur sooner or later.

HE New York Sun, following the lead of the Hvening Post and some other papers, “sounds a warning,” as it says, to people who think of investing their money in

office-buildings in New York. Although the earlier of the new oOffice-buildings have paid a good profit on the investment,

competition with the still newer ones has brought down the rentals of both, and even in the most recent ones, and far more in the old buildings beside them, signs of vacant offices to let meet the eye in all directions, while rents have fallen in some cases to one-third those asked a few years ago. As the Sun points out, something of this is due to the fact that the new buildings, well lighted and ventilated, with good elevator-ser- vice and other comforts, draw tenants from the old dark and inconvenient buildings in the neighborhood, and the owners of the latter, to get their tenants back, reduce their rents; but more, perhaps, is to be attributed to the increased accommo- dation offered by the new buildings. It cites, as an example, the Bowling Green Building, which occupies twelve city lots, six on Broadway and six on Greenwich Street, all twenty-five feet wide. Supposing the Broadway lots to have been occu- pied by separate six-story buildings, and those on Greenwich Street, which is anything but a fashionable thoroughfare, by four-story ones, it is obvious that, with the necessary space for the stairs and corridors taken out, there could be only two light rooms on each floor of each building, or one hundred and twenty offices in all; and half of these, being entered only from Greenwich Street, would hardly be available for any- thing but tenements or cheap storage. By taking all the land for one great building, with its main entrance on Broadway, the Greenwich Street lots become immediately Broadway prop- erty, commanding a triple or quadruple rental, while the econ- omy of space secured by treating the whole tract together has made it possible to get thirty-nine large offices on each floor in place of twelve. Moreover, as the new building is seventeen stories high, instead of six, the total number of offices which can be made in it, each with outside light and air, is one thou- sand and twenty, in place of one hundred and twenty ; and all these offices are Broadway offices,” commanding the highest rents, all are accessible by elevators, so that the upper stories are as valuable as the lower ones, and all are much more at- tractive than the rooms in the old buildings which the new one supersedes. It is evident that the new building competes for tenants, not with six Broadway buildings of the sort which it has

: replaced, but with fourteen times as many ; or, in other words, at

at. outlay for land, which is usually the largest part of the in- vestment, of the price of six Broadway lots and six Greenwich Streets lots, it affords attractive quarters for the tenants of eighty-four Broadway lots, covered with six-story buildings. It is evident that by this sort of improvement the office accommo- dation of the city soon outruns the demand ; but it is no less evi- dent that such an operation gives a very large margin of profit, and that the owners of the Bowling Green Building can afford to be content, if necessary, with small returns on their invest- ment, while waiting for the generous income which it should give when tenants are found for all its rooms. Where build- ing operations of this sort have not been so prudently planned, the owners have already suffered, as in the case of the Syndi- cate Building on Nassau Street, which was built as a specula- tion, and has just been sold for the second time, with the re- sult of cutting off the third and fourth mortgages ; but in most cases the property pays, even at present, a moderate interest, and it is reasonable to suppose that rentals will increase rather than diminish, while repairs, in modern buildings of this sort, form a very small item of expense. On the whole, therefore, notwithstanding the warnings of the newspapers, and the great fall in office rents, there is reason to suppose that a well- contracted office-building, in a good location in New York, con- tracted for at present prices of labor and materials, is as de- sirable an investment as can be found. Of course, if the land can be had at a comparatively reasonable price, as has been the case with the Bowling Green and the Washington Build- ings, the profit on the investment is all the more sure; and it is always prudent to plan such a building so that it can be made available for as many different purposes as possible. If office tenants should be hard to find, there is always a demand for fireproof storage, so that rooms may be temporarily let for this purpose, as they have been in Chicago, with perceptible benefit to the rent-roll ; and, particularly in New York, a great deal of business is done in offices by manufacturers, who sell their goods by sample, and need storage room for their cases; and it must be remembered that any revival in general busi- ness will be followed by a great increase in the demand for offices in New York.

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34 The American Architect and Building News.

(Vou. LVI.—No. 1114.

HE last report of the tests of metals and other materials, made with the United States testing-machine at the Water- town Arsenal, covers only the work done for the year

ending June 30, 1895, but, as every one knows, the wheels of Government work turn slowly, and the report is not the less interesting because of its tardy appearance. In addition to some tests of ordnance material, and a long series of very curious experiments upon railroad tracks in service, in which delicate levels and micrometers were mounted on tracks over which heavy locomotives were run, to determine the strains of tension and compression, and the changes of shape, caused by the movement of heavy loads over rails of various sections, supported by ballast of different kinds, the report contains descriptions of tests of boiler-riveting, and some interesting trials of stones, bricks and cement of various kinds, to deter- mine their resistance, not only to tension and compression, but to transverse and shearing stresses. The results do not differ greatly from those familiar to professional men, but the skilful management of the Watertown tests is shown in a noticeable uniformity of results, the compressive strength of four speci- mens of granite, from Maine, Arkansas, and two quarries in Minnesota, ranging only from eighteen thousand one hundred and twenty-one pounds to nineteen thousand five hundred and ninety-nine, the extreme variations from the mean being only about five per cent; while, even in sandstones, the greatest variation from the mean of six specimens was only about twenty-six per cent.

NE of the most interesting of the facts ascertained, proba-

bly for the first time, by these tests is that temperature

and moisture have a very great influence in determining the resistance of stone. In order to measure the permanent expansion which is known to take place in stones after soaking in water, a large number of samples were soaked in water at 32° Fahr., then in water at the boiling-point, and again in the cold water, and afterwards dried. On measurement, all the stones so treated were found to be larger than before, the actual linear expansion being from one-fifth to one-tenth of one per cent. On testing for resistance to various strains, however, the strength was found to be greatly affected by the water treatment. Granite was least injured, the average of six samples so treated showing a loss of seventeen per cent in resistance to transverse stress, while marbles showed a loss of more than half their strength, the average resistance of the water-treated samples being only forty-six per cent of that of the untreated stones, and a dark marble from Vermont lost more than two-thirds of its strength ; limestones lost, on an average, forty-one per cent; and sandstones thirty-three per cent. That this loss was due to the action of the water, and not to the heat alone, is shown by the fact that specimens placed in the water with the others, but enclosed in sealed cases, so that only the temperature could affect them, lost comparatively little. This curious and important phenomenon is rendered all the more perplexing by the fact that all stones, when first quarried, are moist with “quarry sap,” and rainwater filters continually through all rock formations in our climate; so that the conditions introduced by a second soaking, even in boiling water, would not seem to be so novel as to account for the effects indicated. It is true that boiling water might dissolve out certain constituents which would be insoluble in cold water, but this would not account for the permanent increase in volume produced by the treatment, and the fact that two specimens of sandstone showed an increase of about ten per cent in transverse strength after treatment still further con- fuses the subject. One of the specimens that showed such increase was from East Longmeadow, Mass., from the so-called “Worcester quarry, while another specimen from East Long- meadow, from the Kibbie quarry, which produces a particularly hard and strong stone, lost, under the water treatment, forty- nine per cent of its strength.

HE noted architects, W. Béckmann and Bruno Schmitz, of Berlin, have made a sketch for a vast arena for ath- letic contests, which they think it would be well for the

Government to lay out at the foot of the Kyffhaiiser mountain, already dominated by the combined monument to the late Emperor William and Frederick Barbarossa. As the Deutsche Bauzeitung says, Germany has, of late years, given so much attention to intellectual development that physical culture has been rather neglected, and the idea of the people interested in

the scheme seems to be that the establishment of a sort of German Olympia will help to revive the public interest in manly exercises. The situation of the place is very favorable. At the foot of the mountain runs a little stream, the Thierborn Bach, which can be easily expanded, by means of a dam, into a long, narrow lake, for swimming exhibitions, and on the other side of this stream is a sort of elliptical valley, open on the side opposite the Kyffhaiiser, and surrounded by hilis of moderate elevation. ‘To utilize these features of the ground, it is proposed to convert the valley into an immense arena, arranging semicircular ranks of seats on the hill-sides, and placing a covered stand, for privileged spectators, at the end next the lake. Two bridges across the stream connect the arena with the Kyfthaiiser, and on the side of this, high enough to overlook the arena, is formed an immense terrace. Buildings for various purposes occupy the back of this terrace, and also the upper portions of one of the hills surrounding the arena. The scheme is certainly a fine one, but it remains to be seen whether it will be carried out.

. Academy of Sciences, an account of the analysis of the air collected by an instrument placed in a balloon, at a height of about nine miles above the earth. The apparatus used consisted of a cylinder of tinned copper, with a valve, ar- ranged to be opened, and again closed, by clockwork, Pre- vious experiments had shown that the balloon would reach its highest altitude in about an hour and a quarter after leaving the ground, and the clockwork was set for that time, the cylin- der being, of course, previously exhausted. Everything seems to have worked properly; the valve opened at or near the highest altitude, as was shown by the fact that the pressure of the air contained in the cylinder, as measured by the manom- eter in the laboratory subsequently, agreed very closely, when corrected for temperature, with the minimum shown by the self-registering barometer; and closed again so tightly that no leakage appears to have taken place. On analysis, the thin air from the upper regions was found to be very similar in composition to that near the surface, but showed a slightly larger proportion of carbonic acid, and a smaller one of oxygen than the average surface air. M. Miintz, who made the anal- yses, observed, however, that the tin coating of the cylinder might have had a little carbonic acid condensed upon it, or, possibly, that some oil or grease about the apparatus might have furnished carbonic acid, at the expense of the oxygen.

M CAILLETET presented a few weeks ago, to the French


HERE is trouble again in that more or less happy family, the New York Board of Walking-Delegates, It will be remembered that the steam-fitters represented in that body

recently struck against the thermostat-men, and that, after much squabbling and loss of time and money by all the people concerned, the matter was referred to ‘the arbitration of Presi- dent Seth Low, who decided against the steam-fitters. The latter received the award, as the newspapers reported, with howls and jeers.” Their helpers, who have a union of their own, “sympathized” with them, and for some weeks steam- fitting in New York has been at a standstill, except where non- union men were employed. Last Saturday, however, the union steam-fitters took up their tools again, and went to work as usual, rather to the surprise of the helpers, who thought, naturally, that their “sympathy” would be requited by ad- mission to any negotiations looking to an adjustment of the dis- pute between the men and their employers. Their surprise was not diminished, nor was their satisfaction increased, by the discovery that their own jobs had been coolly appropriated by the steam-fitters, half of the latter acting as helpers, while the others worked at their regular steam-fitting. It must be con- fessed that the plan of going on strike, and calling on some one else to strike too, for sympathy, and then going secretly and ar- ranging to get his job, while excellent as a manceuvre in the “struggle for life,” has a certain repulsion for those old-fash- ioned people who still believe in such things as honor, and the helpers have made formal complaint to the Board of Walking- Delegates, which they propose to follow up with stronger measures, if justice is denied them. In this attempt they will probably have the support of all the other unions, for the mutual loyalty which is the most admirable characteristic of workingmen,’ and on which the existence of labor organiza- tions depends, is particularly outraged by this performance.

May 1, 1897.]

The American Architect and Building News. 85



HE use of con- crete or cement in garden work is carried on with the most success in Italy

the Bay of Naples. The bay is bounded on the south by a narrow and mountain- ous promontory, which separates it from the less known, but still charming Gulf of Salerno. This peninsula, although containing much un- tillable land —is quite

, thickly populated, containing the towns vt Castellamare, Vico Equense, Sorrento, Massa Lubrense, and Amalfi, beside numerous villages and fishing hamlets. The mountains rise to a height of several thousand feet, effectively dividing the northern from the southern half. Off the end of the promontory is the island of Capri, which in scenery and character- istics forms a continuation of the mainland, and in both places are interesting examples of gardens and terraces.

The precipitous slopes and cliffs of this ragged coast have been for centuries the country seats of the dwellers in the populous Italian cities. From the times of the Romans until now these wonderfully beautiful spots have sheltered palace and villa, as .well as hut and farm. The blue sky and healthy climate, the white-walled hamlets gleaming among the rich green foliage, and the towering mountains form sucha charming environment that it is no wonder that even the ordinary architecture and the most prosaic construction takes on a festive and playful air.

At the same time, in these parts of Southern Italy arises the prob- lem of a dense population compelled to subsist in a very mountainous and broken country. The coast is remarkably bold and rugged, often rising vertically from the water in high cliffs and then falling back little less abruptly to a mountainous interior. In order to im- prove the last square inch of soil, these unpromising slopes have been, with infinite pains, turned into a series of stone-walled terraces, often only five or six feet high by ten or twelve wide, just enough to give a foothold for a row of olive trees or perhaps some vines. To such an extent has this practice been carried that from a boat off

A Pergola at Amalfi.

the inlet of Prajano one can count over a hundred terraces, one above another.

It has often happened that the owners of some villa, or the occu- pants of some monastery, perched high among the rocks, desiring a strip of flower-garden, or a sheltered level promenade, have taken

1Continued from No. 1111, page 12.

in the region around |

one of these terraces, and by a simple arrangement of overhead vine trellis, and walls and seats managed in the white cement, have ob- tained their object at very slight expense.

Next to the square, flat-domed houses and curiously tiled, Moorish- looking towers, one’s attention is soonest drawn to the rows of low,

A Pergola at Capri.

solid-looking white plaster columns which border the vineyards and gardens. The pretty Italian custom of training the vines high has led to the vine trellis (pergola) being made an architectural feature of the landscape, and nowhere more effectively than along the edges of the south-facing cliffs of Amalfi and Ravello, from whence the accompanying examples are taken.

The pergola from which the plan was made is at Ravello, a queer little village on the top of the cliffs, eleven hundred feet above the sea. The town, which in the thirteenth century contained forty thousand people and numerous churches and palaces, is reached by

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a winding and strikingly beautiful road, which debouches at length in a small and sleepy piazza, among strange-looking remains of Sar- acenic domes and towers, relics of its early splendor. The Palazzo Rufalo, the principal remaining monument, with its fantastic courts and domes, Saracenic in design, and once occupied by Pope Ad- rian IV, King Charles II and Robert the Wise, has a delightful garden, the sea end of which is formed by the pergola in question.

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36 The American Architect

and Building News. [Vou. LVI. —No. 1114.

It amounts simply to a sort of colonnade, parallel with the cliff, and making at once a promenade and a resting place as a termination to the rather thickly wooded garden behind. At either end is a high white niche for a statue or “fragment.” The side walls are three feet

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high, with the eight-foot pillars spaced about fourteen feet on cen- tres. The width from wall to wall is also fourteen feet. Between the pillars are seats in the wall, and the adornment is further carried out by oleanders in tubs, or statuary in front of the pillars. The trellis is completed by poles placed crosswise on top of the pillars, which are thickly overgrown with vines. Flights of steps descend to a lower terrace, beyond which there is a sheer descent, and under them a grotto with a piscina is arranged. Small round tables and seats are also managed in cement and put at the ends of the walks. The magnificent view includes the entire sweep of the


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Gulf of Salerno, Majori, Capo d’Orso and the low-lying opposite shore almost to the ruins of Pestum.

The photographs [See Illustrations] show two views of the famous Capuchin pergola at Amalfi which is constructed in the same way. It now belongs to the hotel which has taken the place of the old monastery, which was founded in 1212, by Cardinal Pietro Capuano for the Cistercians, but came into the possession of the Capuchins in 1583. The building itself has fine cloisters and contains many interesting examples of cement work.

Beside trellises, all the other accessories of a garden are made in the white plaster. The annexed sketches show a covered well and some garden seats, all in Amalfi. The well has a concave shell ornament _. under the hood and a frieze of blue-and-white glazed tiles at the sides. The round pillars have inverted semicircular, block-like capitals of the type met with in the neighboring c lois ters. The well with its hood

is placed against a wall in the court of the old monastery. The seats, which suggest choir stalls, are managed along one of the levels of a small garden just above the coast road. The spaces under the seats are left hollow and a little flower-bed is introduced right above the

backs. Some red coloring has been irregularly brushed on and left to weather, and the rusty splotches tend to relieve a too dazziing whiteness. Another form of well, less elaborate, is contrived by r building two pillars, sa

| eight feet high, one on each side of the curb, and placing a pole cross-wise to carry the wheel and chains. This is, of course, the rudest form and all sorts of varia- tions in the way of roofs and ironwork can be intro- duced.

Not less fascinating than the gardens are the houses and all the architectural accessories of domestic life. Amalfi lies at ‘the mouth of a deep gorge extending far up into the mountain, and serving as a channel for a roaring brook which furnishes the power for a dozen paper-mills hanging precariously to the steep sides. The buildings are approached by curious little brick bridges which adapt themselves naively to the inequalities of the banks with miniature arches, flights of steps and parapets. (n the paved quais—inches deep with the drying macaroni where the bare-footed ragazzi shuffle and jump along the sandy beach and terraced roadway, now hang- ing over black rocks, and now lost in tangled lanes, are scores of picturesque, vaulted, open-stairwayed houses, with the vine trellises driven to the roof and flying their long leafy streamers in the air. On all the neighboring islands are hundreds more, and the accompanying sketch of one at Capri is only an instance of the possibilities of this kind of work for domestic purposes. The prevailing color is white with green wooden shutters, but brilliant coloring is often used in the soffits and backs of the vaulted openings, and here and there a tower or dome isfantas- tically decorated with

atterns in glazed tiles.

he populace, it may be said, introduce a very strong note of color, for nowhere is the Italian love of gaudy stuffs more marked than here.

A carriage road, heavily walled and but- tressed, is carried around all but the most impracticable part of the peninsula, and the searcher for garden work, even leaving the scenery out of account, should walk or ride over every foot of the distance. This region is as yet untracked by railways, Castellamare and Salerno being the nearest stations ; but the tariff is low and the distances are really not too great for walking, while the roads are excellent and the natives picturesque and amusing.

The large academic garden is seldom found here. The topog- raphy of the country, indeed, scarcely admits of it. The materials are almost always of the rudest kind. The round pillars seldom have capitals or mouldings of any kind, nor are the walls and seats ornamented with any relief work. The wooden poles which form the roof of the trellis are generally round and plain, and placed both at right angles and diagonally to the axis. Squared timbers, or beams with ends cut ornamentally, are not often employed, a mistake sometimes made when the pergola is imitated in this country, which tends to give the effect of the unfinished framing of a roof. Red unglazed tiles are used for paving the walks and alleys. Much of the effect depends on the proportion and spacing of the columns.

They are always kept rather stout and with not too much entasis,

and are as often octagonal as round. Oleanders or orange trees, in

tubs or large earthen pots placed along the alleys, are very useful to

take away the too stiff air of the strictly architectural forms and

to partly conceal the bases. © Watter Harrineton Kitwam. [To be continued.]

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May 1, 1897.] The American Architect

and Building News. 37


N 1888 Dr. H. J. Berkley employed J. A. & W. T. Wilson, archi- tects, to prepare drawings and specifications for a residence in Baltimore. hen the bids were opened it was found that the

lowest exceeded the limit of cost. Accordingly the architects set to work to reduce it, and after consultation with their client, and by reducing the size somewhat, as well as by leaving out a number of items, the contract was finally awarded to a builder, George Bun- necke, for the sum of $13,872 on June 12, 1888. The house was completed and turned over to the owner who occupied it in February, 1889. Soon after mov- ing in, complaints, most of which seemed trivial, began to be made, but the builder, at the re- quest of the architects, tried in every way to render the house satis- factory to the owner. Whenever one set of complaints was reme- died, another set was always presented, until in arch, 1889, the architects, wearied by the continual fault-find- ing and the apparent im- possibility of satisfying their client’s demands, asked him to write out a list of everything of which he considered he had a just cause of com- plaint, and to agree that if everything on this list were made good, he would finally be satisfied. The list was given, and the builder did his best to meet its demands. After a final inspection of the work by the architects they decided that everything was properly completed, and gave their final cer- tificate. This the owner refused to pay, on the ground that the work was not according to specifications. The balance of the archi- tect’s commission was also refused on the same grounds. The builder and the architects then entered suit separately, for the sums due them, when the owner promptly followed, by suing each of the parties for $10,000 damages, in 1890. These suits slumbered on the court docket until November, 1896, when the damage suit against Bunnecke was tried in the City Court before a jury. More than twenty wit- nesses testified for the defense, embracing nearly all the persons who had furnished ma- terial or done work on the house. The plaintiff called as witnesses a builder and the ex- Inspector of Buildings, together with a man who had done some work for him about the house, and a painter. The case was well contested by able counsel on both sides, and at the end of seven days, resulted in a verdict for the plaintiff of one cent damages. A subsequent motion by the plaintiff for a new trial was refused, and he was obliged to pay the costs.

On April 12, the trial of the suit against the architects was begun. They had substantially the same witnesses as in the first case, among them two well-known architects and several prominent builders who had made a thorough examination of the house. The plaintiff called the same witnesses as before, with the addition of a paper-hanger, another builder and an amateur photographer, who showed more than twenty pictures taken by flash-light, of the interior of the house,

Bronze Memoria! Tablet, Museum of Fine-Arts, Boston, Mass. A. St. Gaudens, Sculptor.


from the cellar to the attic. Every crack in the plastering had been photographed and the footings of the walls exposed and subjected to the same process. Portions of the flooring which in the familiar manner of photography were horribly distorted, with magnified perspective, were shown, small cracks being enlarged until they resembled wide seams between the boards. The case had been so carefully worked up that no part nor portion of the building escaped. The jury were told that the water “poured” through the walls, that more than half” the bricks in the front pavement were cracked and broken when Jaid; that the front wall was so much out of perpendicular, that nothing remained but to tear it down, at a cost variously estimated at from $2,500 to $3,500. ‘Lhey were told that the walls had cracked and settled, that none of them had any founda- tion; that things had been omitted wilfully from the work which had been contracted for, and so on. The fact was brought out that the footings of the brick walls, instead of having two courses, each pro- jecting 4 inches, making an 8-inch projection on each side of the wall, were built in some places with two courses, each projecting 23 inches, or a total of 5 inches on each side. Very much was sought to be made of this by the plaintiff, as being a departure from the letter of the specifica- tions (and the only one), notwithstanding that the testimony showed the footings, as built, were capable of sustaining twice the safe load put upon them, and also that the 750 bricks saved by the builder had been used, and more, in a dormer origi- nally intended to have been of wood and for which no charge was made. The clause in the contract, allowing changes to be made by the architects, was con- sidered by the jury as covering this point. It was sought by the plain- tiff to exclude the record of the former case, but at the conclusion of the testimony the judge allowed it to come in, so that the contention was narrowed down to whether the drawings and specifications were accurate and sufficient, and whether the super- vision by the architects was what it should have been. The jury was out but a short time, and brought in a verdict un- conditionally for the ar- chitects, the plaintiff to pay the costs of the suit.

In these cases the fact most clearly brought out was, that in assuming to supervise the actual work of Construction, as is the general custom of the profession in this count'y, 40 architect renders himself liable to the most disagreeable and possibly embarrassing consequences, which in extreme cases might easily ruin him finan- cially, and all for the pittance of one-and-one"half per cent on the cost of the work! There should be a radical change in this matter, and no building of any importance should be erected without a clerk-of-the-works, or superintendent, paid by the owner and respon- sible to him. Most of the risk and trouble to which architects are subjected proceed from this cause, and they had much better refuse to visit the work at all, than to do so under the false impression that they are “superintending” it. It is almost impossible for the public


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SCC RE 7 ree eres

88 The American Architect

and Building News. [Vou. LVI.—No. 1114.

to discriminate between the supervision of an architect, and the superintendence of a clerk-of-the-works.

Another fact, brought most clearly into prominence, was, that the members of the same profession will render the best service to them- selves by cheerfully rendering it to one another. The members of the profession should always strive to uphold one another, and not lend themselves to abusing and defaming their confréres. In the present case, two architects rendered most efficient service in giving their unbiased testimony, while others were ready on a moment’s notice, had they been needed.

The scope of the cases may be inferred from the fact that the testimony in the first case alone comprised five large volumes, closely type-written. X.


Chapter, 156 Fifth Avenue, on Wednesday, April 14, 1897, at 4 o'clock p. M., President Carrére in the chair.

The Secretary presented a letter from the Boston Chapter A. I. A., enclosing resolutions passed by it on 8th inst., recommending that the present incumbent of the office of Supervising Architect of the United States Treasury Department be retained, and expressing the hope that the New York Chapter may be led to take similar action.

The documents were received and, after considerable discussion of several resolutions offered and withdrawn, the following resolution was passed :

A REGULAR meeting was held at the rooms of the New York

Resolved, That the New York Chapter of the American Institute of Architects endorse the work which has been done by the present incum bent of the office of the Supervising Architect of the United States Treasury Department, and respectfully request that he be retained, and not removed for political reasons; but that, by this action, they in no way endorse the present system under which the Government determines its designs for federal buildings.

The Secretary presented a printed document, being a proposed petition to Congress, covering preambles and resolutions passed by the Fine-Arts Federation of New York, condemnatory of certain of the Fine-Art provisions in the tariff bill known as the Dingley Bill,” now before Congress, together with a letter asking for the Chapter’s consideration of the same.

A discussion ensued on the subject of the proposed municipal building for the Hall of Records